Modern biomass DH systems are equipped with process control systems supporting fully automatic system operation. The design of a DH system is always based on the system’s heat load, and the choice of heat production technology is based on the required capacity and planned fuel mixture. For biomass-based DH boilers, several different furnace technologies are available, with varying technical characteristics and applications, depending on boiler capacity and biomass type and properties (for example, ash and moisture content).
A regulatory framework for defining, testing, and monitoring the quality of biomass heating appliances is not developed in Western Balkan countries. Most of the biomass heating appliances found at the market have not undergone testing defined by EN standards. Air quality, human health, protection of natural resources and development of a sustainable biomass heating market require a policy that encourages the production and sale of safe and clean biomass heating appliances.
In the Western Balkans, the producers of wood-fueled heating appliances— such as stoves, small boilers, and wood-pellet and wood-chip appliances— are located mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Serbia. Usage of wood stoves and wood-log small boilers is widespread in all the countries of the region, while wood-pellet and wood-chip appliances are less common.